What is Die Casting and the Die Casting Process?

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Die casting, referred to as die casting, is a casting method that pours molten alloy liquid into a pressure chamber, fills the cavity of a steel mold at high speed, and solidifies the alloy liquid under pressure to form a casting. The main features of die casting that distinguish it from other casting methods are high pressure and high speed.

①The molten metal fills the cavity under pressure and crystallizes and solidifies under higher pressure. The typical pressure is 15-100MPa.

②The molten metal fills the cavity at high speed, usually 10-50 m/s, and sometimes can exceed 80 m/s, so the filling time of molten metal is short. The mold cavity is filled in about 0.01-0.2 seconds (depending on the die-casting size).

Die casting is a precision casting method. The dimensional tolerances of die castings are tiny, and the surface accuracy is very high. In most cases, die castings can be assembled and applied without turning. Parts can also be cast directly. Small components such as general camera parts, typewriter parts, electronic computing devices, and ornaments, as well as complex parts of vehicles such as automobiles, locomotives, and airplanes, are manufactured mainly by die casting. Die casting is a particular casting method that develops rapidly in modern metal processing technology.

The advantages of die-casting production:

  • High production efficiency;
  • Simple process;
  • High casting tolerance level;
  • Good surface roughness;
  • High mechanical strength.

This die-casting manufacturing technology can save many machining processes, equipment, and raw materials. Die casting is an essential part of the global foundry industry.

The die-casting process involves organically combining the three major elements of a die-casting machine, mold, and alloy for extensive use. Filling the cavity with metal during die casting involves unifying factors such as pressure, speed, temperature, and time. At the same time, these process factors influence each other, restrict each other, and complement each other. Only by correctly selecting and adjusting these factors and making them harmonize can the expected results be obtained.

Therefore, we should pay attention to the die-casting production process:

  • The craftsmanship of the casting structure;
  • The advanced nature of the die-casting mold;
  • The performance and structural excellence of the die-casting machine;
  • The adaptability of the selection of die-casting alloys;
  • The standardization of the smelting process;
  • Pressure, temperature, and die-casting molding time;
  • The process parameters play an important role in casting quality as well. Pay attention to the effective control of these parameters.

What is aluminum alloy die casting?

Aluminum die-casting is a kind of pressure-casting part. It uses a pressure-casting mechanical die-casting machine equipped with a casting mold. The aluminum or aluminum alloy is heated to a liquid state and poured into the feed port of the die-casting machine. The shape and size of aluminum alloy parts, such factors are usually called aluminum alloy die castings.

Aluminum alloy die-casting parts have different names in different places, such as aluminum die-casting parts, die-casting aluminum alloy parts, die-casting aluminum parts, die-casting aluminum, aluminum alloy die-casting parts, aluminum alloy die-casting, etc.

Because the aluminum alloy has good fluidity and plasticity, and the casting process is material molding in a pressure die-casting machine, the aluminum alloy die-casting parts are produced in various complex shapes with high precision and smoothness.

The die-casting manufacturing dramatically reduces the machining amount of castings and allowance of metal aluminum alloys. It helps to save electricity, power, metal materials, labor costs, etc, during industrial manufacturing.

What’s the application of aluminum die castings?

Aluminum alloys have excellent thermal conductivity, also a small proportion of high machinability, thus aluminum alloy die castings are widely used in automobile manufacturing, internal combustion engine production, motorcycle manufacturing, motor manufacturing, oil pump manufacturing, transmission machinery manufacturing, precision instruments, landscaping, power construction, architectural decoration, and other industries. Aluminum die-casting parts can manufacture as aluminum die-casting auto parts, aluminum die-casting automobile engine pipe fittings, aluminum die-casting engine cylinder, aluminum die-casting gasoline engine cylinder head, aluminum die-casting valve rocker arm, aluminum die-casting valve seat, aluminum die-casting power fittings, aluminum die-casting Motor end cover, aluminum die-casting housing, aluminum die-casting pump housing, aluminum die-casting building accessories, aluminum die-casting decorative accessories, aluminum die-casting guardrail accessories, aluminum die-casting aluminum wheels, and other parts.

Let’s look at the process flow of aluminum die casting, annealing, normalizing, quenching, and tempering.

These four processes are called the “four fires” in die-casting. Quenching and tempering are closely related in the die-casting process. Both are indispensable.

Annealing is to heat the workpiece. First, heat the die-casting workpiece to an appropriate temperature, then let the die-casting cool down slowly according to the different materials used, and the metal’s internal structure has reached a near-equilibrium state. Normalizing is to heat the workpiece to a suitable temperature and then cool it in the air. It is mainly used to improve the cutting performance of the material and can also be used to finish die-casting for some parts that do not require high requirements. Quenching is a process that rapidly cools the joint building in a quenching medium such as water or other inorganic salt solutions after heating and heat preservation. After this process, the produced steel parts will become hard and brittle at the same time. To reduce the brittleness of steel parts, the quenched steel parts can be placed at a temperature below 650 degrees Celsius and higher than the average temperature for a long time and then cooled, which is called tempering.

TDL has rich experience in die-casting mold manufacturing, and we can help you with die-casting projects.


Gary Liao

Gary Liao

Gary Liao is the Engineering Manager of TDL Company and has more than 20 years of mold design experience.

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